Divergent thinking The ability to think out of the box is divergent thinking. Problem-solving is defined the act of resolving a complex, ill-defined problem using new ideas that have been developed using multiple pieces of information and expertise in order to provide a framework for implementing a solution. Zig where others zag. Convergent thinking was further broken down into verbal intelligence and working memory, which also predicted insight independently of each other and of divergent thinking … Divergent thinking problems means ____. They concluded that the selection of tests is important even when they seem to measure same or similar skills. , Article 2. Of course, these three explanations are not mutually exclusive, and possibly all contribute to divergent production. Divergent thinking, also referred to as lateral thinking, is the process of creating multiple, unique ideas or solutions related to a problem that you are trying to solve. Assuming that abstraction relies to some extent on mind wandering implies that the categorization process involved in divergent thinking could also be associated to mind wandering in some manner. Trainees then completed a set of exercises to practice the techniques they learned during training. Pretend play relates to and facilitates processes—divergent thinking, insight, imagination, and affect expression—relevant to creativity and creative problem solving (Dansky 1980; Fisher 1992; Moore and Russ 2008; Russ and Grossman-McKee 1990). Some Match Problems allow the generation of multiple solutions to the same problem. Amit Goel, McGill University The use of lectures, A-V equipment, case-based material, or cooperative learning activities fall into this category. This selective impairment was especially apparent in patients with lesions to right ventral (as opposed to dorsal) prefrontal cortex (PFC). Guilford (1968, 1986)Guilford, 1968Guilford, 1986 eventually identified 180 different aspects of the intellect. On divergent thinking in the visuo‐spatial domain, however, only 15/16‐year‐olds … Here’s a sample brainstorm for “paper clip” uses: 1. FAQ | Variability-producing thinking is characterized as thinking that breaks the rules—of logic, of simplicity or symmetry, and of social conventions—by bringing together ideas that are usually kept separate. On the contrary, convergent thinking dictates that there must be a certain answer with the highest value. J.P. Guilford is usually given credit for distinguishing between convergent and divergent thinking, but a few earlier scientists did recognize the value of ideation. Divergent thinking is one of the most well-studied aspects of creativity. This deficit has been attributed to the role of the right frontal region in permitting flexible strategy shifts. Water logic, by contrast, allows ideas to flow together from many directions according to the natural pathways in the material in question, just as water flows along cracks and depressions in the ground where there is no resistance, and forms pools and eventually rivers (creative ideas). https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/jps/vol8/iss1/2, Home | Andrew Marvell Centre for Medieval and Early Modern Studies Archaeology and Landscapes Studies Research Centre / Wetland Archaeology and Environments Research Centre Blaydes Maritime Centre Centre for Applied Research and Evaluation Centre for British Politics Centre for City and Regional Studies Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice Centre for End of Life Studies Centre for … This kind of thinking is able to unite apparently conflicting or mutually exclusive ideas by bringing them into the same cognitive space, thus producing novelty. Divergent thinking is employed when an individual is faced with an open-ended task (examples were given earlier—“How can a brick be used?”). Mark A. Runco, in Creativity (Second Edition), 2014. So now that you know about three different types of creativity, insight, convergent thinking, and divergent thinking, you might think that the brain processes must be complicated. Divergent Insights: We help turn Fortune! However, in the context of the complete design (or creative problem-solving) process, where divergent synthesis is followed by convergent analysis, it highlights an element that is critical to any discussion of the interaction between engineering design and creativity. Phil Charron Executive Vice President October 26, 2011. For this reason it has been argued that good performance on Match Problems necessitates ‘set shifts.’ By relaxing the constraints placed on the problem space, set shifts effectively widen the problem space. Lastly, assessing an individual's response to creative work or examining the degree to which an individual accepts or even initiates creative action is an important aspect of creativity that should be examined. On divergent thinking in the visuo‐spatial domain, however, only 15/16‐year‐olds … Continual growth of categorical knowledge by restructuring concepts is a creative phenomenon (Ward, Smith, & Vaid, 1997). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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Divergent thinking is more than thinking outside the box; it’s thinking without the box, and imposing structure later. However, divergent thinking, as the precursor to convergent thinking and taking place within a creative problem-solving (or top-down engineering design) process, does not have the same complete freedom. The 25-30-year-olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. Pair this with the fact that creative ideas do not always work out as intended, it is not surprising that people have difficulty accepting creativity. We explain this dissociation in terms of differing task demands of divergent thinking and insight tasks and speculate that the greater sensitivity of non-native speakers to tDCS stimulation may be a function of less entrenched neural networks for non-native languages. This represents a more extensive description of the processes contributing to creative thought than divergent thinking alone. Divergent and convergent thinking are two complementary methods to explore ideas, work towards goals, and address challenges. Divergent thinking is the process of thinking that explores multiple possible solutions in order to generate creative ideas. This is a self-report measure, assessing ideational skills in a natural environment. V. Drago, K.M. Neuroimaging studies of this paradigm also indicate no reliable changes above and beyond diffuse prefrontal activation. The composite of divergent thinking was correlated (both zero-order and part correlations) with the measure of global change and general managerial creativity, but not with the incremental change. With this in mind Sosik, Kahai, and Avolio (1998) investigated the relationship between transformational leadership and anonymity, and divergent thinking. Divergent thinking tests were also used for prediction of managerial creativity. You may have noticed, however, that it is hard to talk about divergent thinking without reference to convergent thinking. … It is closely associated with spontaneity, random thoughts, non-conformity, creativity and thinking “out-of-the-box”. As discussed by several creativity researchers since the development of the divergent thinking construct, creativity can also be thought of as the generation of novel, useful solutions to problems (i.e., problem-solving). No age-group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. The ability to generate diverse ideas (divergent thinking) is valuable in solving creative problems (e.g., insight problems); yet, however advantageous, this ability is insufficient to solve the problem alone and requires the ability to logically deduce an assessment of correctness of … 8 Converging methodologies is important because EEG and fMRI, due to their greater temporal and spatial resolutions respectively, offer researchers different types of information and thereby a more complete picture about task-related brain function. My Account | Also, a main effect was found for anonymity. Divergent thinking takes place in a free-flowing manner and is spontaneous, which results in multiple possible solutions in short amount of time. Edward De Bono’s concept of Lateral Thinking falls into this area. Of course, this system is highly vulnerable to error, … One benefit of using performance as a criterion for creativity is that performance is ultimately the outcome of primary concern in real-world settings. In divergent thinking, the multiple answers are of equal value. Because some of the resulting ideas are original, divergent thinking represents the potential for creative thinking and problem solving. IQ tests typically assume that there is one general intelligence (or g) that underlies every intelligent act—every single one. From this perspective divergent thinking is a kind of problem solving. Divergent thinking tests are also used in numerous educational programs and in various organizational training packages. Runco, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. First, generating additional hypotheses in divergent trials requires their maintenance in working memory. According to him, there are two ways to find a solution. Secondly, divergent thinking extends the access to semantically distant categories. No age‐group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. This is highly reminiscent of the convergent-divergent-convergent pattern that I discussed in an earlier chapter, and also emphasizes the importance of understanding not only how to think divergently (or convergently) but also when and why we do so. Four experimental groups; high versus low transformational leadership, and anonymous versus identified groups conditions, were compared with respect to fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. Intricacy in divergent and convergent thinking; Divergent thinking favors intricate ideas while convergent thinking encourages strong and … Analogical thinking or problem solving, being understood as the use of like problems solutions in guiding solutions of new problems (Goldstein, 2010). However, divergent thinking, as the precursor to convergent thinking and taking place within a creative problem-solving (or top-down engineering design) process, does not … This procedure is unorganized and yields unexpected connections. Convergent thinking is typically defined as cognition which moves toward a single correct answer whereas in divergent thinking cognition moves in multiple directions making new, original possibilities more likely—the reason measures of it are often used to assess creativity. Although I will deal with some other specific features of convergent thinking later in this chapter, I want to discuss some other kinds of thinking that are associated with the generation of variability and novelty. Divergent Thinking and Brainstorming in Perspective 313 divergent thinking can be cultivated through training alone and these attitudes linger for several weeks after the training is completed (Basadur, Graen, & Scandura, 1986; Basadur, Wakabayashi, & Takai, 1992). For the next 35 years he attempted to prove exactly this. PUPOAJ Brainstorming, free writing, keeping a journal and mind-mapping are examples of divergent thinking. It involves breaking a topic down into its various component parts in order to gain insight about the various aspects of the topic. O. Vartanian, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. > … Creative problem-solving tasks, such as insight problems, require individuals to apply divergent thinking to generate new solutions (incubation and illumination) and to apply convergent thinking to narrow down the options and arrive at the best solution (verification). Electroencephalographic studies of divergent thinking yield highly variegated results. It is not enough to encourage diverse thinking – when you see a load of other white, middle-aged professionals around the table, you will likely suggest solutions that will find approval with your audience. Indeed, much of his thinking on creativity was, and remains, remarkably influential (see Runco 1999d). Rather than emphasizing one process such as divergent thinking, researchers using this approach have identified a wide variety of cognitive processes contributing to creativity. Furthermore, set shifts are facilitated by mental representations of the start state that are more abstract and ambiguous than the one provided in the problem statement. This procedure is unorganized and yields unexpected connections. These neuropsychological results have been corroborated with fMRI data. Thus, creativity involves tertiary process thinking in which primary and secondary process thinking are combined to yield effective novelty. In the context of Match Problems, activation in right dorsal lateral PFC has been shown to covary parametrically with the number of generated solutions. Members of organizations often approach creative ideas with skepticism or even resistance. Divergent thinking can be a useful metatheory, however, because it suggests the possibility of domain-specific divergent-thinking skills that matter in many domains, including skills that can be promoted using certain techniques. The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The goal of divergent thinking is to focus on a subject, in a free-wheeling way, to think of solutions that may not be obvious or predetermined. This training intervention was designed by Feldhusen and colleagues in the early 1980s and consists of 28 lessons on audio tape. Although researchers still debate whether or not divergent thinking is necessary and sufficient for creativity, what is clear is that divergent thinking is a unique capacity that contributes to many forms of creativity. Second, as subjects generate and evaluate hypotheses, they need to keep track of successful and unsuccessful attempts. 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